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Canine Vaccinations

PUPPY VACCINATION RECOMMENDATIONS

6-8 weeks of age
  • DA2PPCV—Initial vaccination without Lepto
9 weeks & older
  • DA2LPPCV—every 3-4 weeks for 2-3 total vaccinations (last one done after 14 weeks of age)
  • Bordatella, if at risk—Initial, may need a booster in 3-4 weeks (See your veterinarian for requirements), then annually
  • Canine Influenza (H3N2 &/or H3N8), if at risk - Initial, booster in 2 weeks, then annually
  • Lyme, if at risk—Initial, booster in 3-4 weeks, then annually
  • Rabies—Initial at 12 weeks of age, booster in 12 months, then every 3 years


 ADULT DOG VACCINATION RECOMMENDATIONS
 

1 year of age
  • DA2LPPCV
  • Lyme, if at risk
  • Bordatella, if at risk
  • Rabies
2 years & older
  • DAP adult—booster every 3 years
  • Lyme, if at risk—yearly booster
  • Lepto, if at risk—yearly booster
  • Bordatella—yearly booster

Vaccinations Explained

Canine Distemper (CDV) is a virus that is spread through most bodily fluids.  It is highly contagious and often deadly.  CDV attacks the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and neurological system.  It can infect ferrets and wild animals, like racoons, skunks, foxes and coyotes. Initial signs include goopy eyes, fever, runny nose, coughing, lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea.  Later signs include seizures, twitching, paralysis and agitated behavior.  There is a 50% mortality rate.  Animals that recover often have permanent neurologic disabilities.  There is no treatment for CDV other than supportive care for the symptoms being displayed.  Warm, dry, sunny locations will kill this virus, but it is resistant to cold and can survive near freezing conditions.  Prevention with vaccination is the only way to protect your dog.  Every dog should receive at least three doses of the distemper vaccine between 6-16 weeks of age, and then yearly or every third year depending on your veterinarian's recommendations.

Adenovirus 2 (CAV-2) is a virus that affects the upper respiratory tract and is associated with kennel cough syndrome.  It is found commonly in shelters, dog parks, and boarding/grooming facilities.  Signs include dry, hacking cough with white, foamy discharge, retching, and conjunctivitis. Vaccination does not prevent a dog from contracting CAV-2, but limits the severity of disease.  The CAV-2 vaccine also cross protects against CAV-1, or infectious canine hepatitis.  This disease is very dangerous and potentially fatal.  Signs include fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.  Adenovirus is transmitted through respiratory secretions or contact with contaminated urine or feces.

Canine Parvovirus (CPV-2) is a highly contagious virus transmitted from infected dogs or feces.  It is easily carried on hands, food dishes, leashes, shoes, etc. and is very stable in the environment.  There is no cure for parvovirus.  It attacks the gastrointestinal tract and immune system.  It can affect the heart of very young puppies.  Signs include lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea.  The only treatment is supportive care of symptoms shown, including IV fluids, administration of medications to decrease vomiting and diarrhea, and antibiotics.  There is an 85-90% survival rate with extensive in-hospital supportive care.  Death is imminent with no treatment.  Every dog should receive at least three doses of the parvovirus vaccine between 6-16 weeks of age, and then yearly or every third year depending on your veterinarian's recommendations.

Parainfluenza (CPIV) is a highly contagious respiratory virus that is associated with kennel cough syndrome.  It is excreted form the respiratory tract for up to two weeks post infection and is transmitted through the air.  It is most commonly seen in kennels or shelters.  Signs include a dry or moist cough, low grade fever, nasal discharge, lack of energy and loss of appetite.

Leptospirosis is a bacteria that is found in the soil, water, and urine of infected animals.  Domestic and wild animals and humans can become infected.  Carriers of the disease include raccoons, opossums, rodents, skunks, and dogs.  It can survive for long periods in water, mud, and moist soil.  Signs usually include weight loss, fever, inappetance, vomiting, lethargy, muscle/joint pain, diarrhea, bloody urine, increased drinking, jaundice, and excessive bleeding.  As the disease progresses, it settles into the kidneys and reproduces.  Usually kidney and/or liver failure develop.  Signs usually develop 2-12 days post exposure.  Many dogs can remain subclinical (not showing any signs).  Hunting and outdoor dogs are at an increased risk.  Treatment includes antibiotics, hospitalization, and fluid therapy.  These dogs need to be handled with care due to the risk of human exposure.  The vaccine requires 2 doses to be given 3-4 weeks apart, and then an annual booster for at risk dogs.

Bordetella bronchiseptica is one of the organisms that cause kennel cough.  Kennel cough syndrome, or canine infectious tracheobronchitis, is highly contagious. It is transmitted through the air and direct contact.  It is usually found in shelters, and boarding/grooming facilities.  Signs include a honking, hacking, or gagging cough, nasal discharge, and sometimes fever and lethargy.  In severe cases, pneumonia can develop.  Signs usually display themselves around 2-14 days post exposure, and usually resolve in 10-14 days.  In many cases the bacteria is self limiting, which means no treatment is needed.  Many times the pet is put on antibiotics to prevent any secondary infections and cough suppressants to make them comfortable.  It is recommended to use a halter instead of a collar to help reduce the pressure put on the trachea, which is already irritated.

This vaccine should be given every six months to one year depending on risk of exposure.  The vaccine is not 100% effective in preventing the disease, but will decrease the severity of symptoms.  The vaccine is either squirted in the nose or mouth, or given as an injection.  If your dog is going to a doggy daycare, grooming, boarding, or training facility, this vaccine is usually required due to the increased risk of exposure at these establishments.  Even if it is not required, it is highly recommended to vaccinate your dog prior to going to any of these places.

Lyme infection is caused by a bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted by the bite of an infected tick.  The tick has to be attached for 24-48 hours before it can begin transmitting the bacteria.  Daily tick checks are recommended to decrease the potential of developing this disease. Lyme disease can affect many species, including humans.  It can take several months for an infected pet to show signs.  Testing can be done in-house to tell us if your pet has been exposed to the bacteria.  There is an additional test, the Lyme Quantitative C6, that is sent off to a laboratory which tells us whether treatment with antibiotics is necessary.  Signs include lethargy, fever, painful joints, loss of appetite, and lameness. Treatment with antibiotics for 28-30 days is effective in eliminating this disease.  Other medications may be given to address any pain that may be involved.  It is possible to become reinfected after treatment.  Tick prevention is highly recommended in addition to the vaccine.

Rabies is a deadly virus (there is no cure!) that is contracted from a bite of an infected animal.  Raccoons, bats, foxes, and skunks are the primary wildlife carriers.  This virus is usually transmitted by saliva.  The rabies virus attacks the central nervous system and all warm blooded animals are susceptible.  Early signs include fever, nervousness, and hiding.  Signs then progress to aggression or erratic behavior, and end with paralysis, seizures, and death.  An animal can appear drunk or unable to walk and drool because its throat muscles become paralyzed.  Keep pets away from wildlife and stray animals to minimize the risk of contracting this disease.  Testing of brain tissue from a deceased animal is the only way to test for this deadly virus.

Because of the severity of this disease, if your pet bites or scratches someone, they will be issued a 10 day Rabies quarantine.  If the animal is current on its Rabies vaccine this quarantine can be completed in home with three exams done by a veterinarian within the 10 days.  If the animal is unvaccinated or past due on the Rabies vaccine, an in-hospital quarantine is required for 10 days.

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